Title: Effects of Shock Waves on Expression of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α Expression by Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts: An In Vitro Study
Authors: Zhiyu Cai, Frank Falkensammer, Oleh Andrukhov, Jiang Chen, Rainer Mittermayr, Xiaohui Rausch-Fan
This study aimed to investigate the effects of shockwave therapy on the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLF). Shockwave therapy has the potential to influence cell behavior through mechanical information transduction.
The researchers applied shockwaves to hPDLF using various parameters and evaluated the impact on the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α).
The results showed that shockwaves did not have a significant negative effect on hPDLF viability, indicating its safety. Initially, there was a statistical inhibition of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-α expression. However, after a few hours, IL-8 expression significantly increased in the group receiving the highest number of shockwave pulses. At 8 hours and 24 hours, all treated groups demonstrated significantly enhanced IL-6 expression. TNF-α expression decreased significantly in the groups receiving more shockwave pulses or higher energy shock treatment after 24 hours.
In conclusion, within the parameters of this study, shockwave therapy with an energy density below 0.19 mJ/mm² and a maximum of 500 pulses did not harm the viability of hPDLF. Shockwaves initially inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators but later caused dose-related up-regulation of IL-6 and IL-8, while down-regulating TNF-α. These findings suggest that shockwave therapy may have potential anti-inflammatory effects and could be beneficial in managing inflammatory conditions in the periodontal ligament.
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