This study aimed to investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on cytokine concentration fluctuations during orthodontic treatment in rats. Researchers applied an orthodontic appliance to rats and treated them with a single episode of 1000 shock waves. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected for 3 days to evaluate the expression and concentration of IL-1β and VEGF, two cytokines involved in periodontal remodeling. The rats were sacrificed on day 3, and histologic and immunohistochemical assays were performed.
The results showed that IL-1β concentration increased in both the treated and non-treated groups on the first day, but it was significantly higher in the treated group on day 2. However, no significant difference was detected between the groups on day 3. The number and area of TRAP positive cells, which are involved in bone resorption, were higher in the non-shockwave group than in the treated group. Conversely, the percentage of cells expressing VEGF, which promotes blood vessel growth, was higher in the treated group.
The findings suggest that the application of shockwaves during orthodontic tooth movement can influence the expression of IL-1β and VEGF and may alter the expected rate of periodontal remodeling. Shockwave therapy may help regulate cytokine concentration during orthodontic treatment, potentially improving treatment outcomes.
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