Stress fractures are common painful conditions in athletes, usually associated to biomechanical overloads. Low risk stress fractures usually respond well to conservative treatments, but up to one third of the athletes may not respond, and evolve into high-risk stress fractures. Surgical stabilization may be the final treatment, but it is a highly invasive procedure with known complications. Shockwave treatments (ESWT), based upon the stimulation of bone turnover, osteoblast stimulation and neovascularization by mechanotransduction, have been successfully used to treat delayed unions and avascular necrosis.
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